Margaret Mire

City-Run Network Would Leave Knoxville Taxpayers Holding the Bag

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Posted by Margaret Mire on Tuesday, June 29th, 2021, 4:33 PM PERMALINK

The Knoxville City Council will be voting this evening on whether to put tax and ratepayers on the hook for the Knoxville Utility Board’s (KUB) government-run broadband plan. As plenty of cities and even a few states have learned the hard way over the years, doing so would be a terrible mistake.

 

Knoxville does not need to look very far to see a current example of a Government-Owned Network (GON) failing to deliver on promises and turning out to be a terrible deal for taxpayers. 

 

KentuckyWired, a 3,000-mile GON that is currently being constructed in the Bluegrass State, was sold to taxpayers as a $350 million project that would be complete by the spring of 2016. Unfortunately for Kentuckians, those projections could not have been more wrong.

 

More than five years past the supposed completion date, fiber construction for KentuckyWired is still “in progress” in some parts of the state and a report from the state auditor has concluded that taxpayers will end up wasting a whopping $1.5 billion on this redundant “government owned network” over its 30-year life.

 

KentuckyWired is not the exception. It is the rule. Where GONs have not failed outright, they have required massive additional subsidies from taxpayers and ratepayers. This is because government entities lack the experience and expertise needed to build out and maintain a state-of-the-art broadband network. 

 

After the initial construction cost, frequent and expensive technology upgrades will be necessary in order for a GON to remain current in such an innovative field. This fact is something politicians often forget to mention.

 

If underestimating the true costs is not problematic enough, government entities also grossly overestimate the demand. Despite having access to a government network, most consumers choose to remain with their trusted private sector provider.

 

Underestimated costs and overestimated demand is a recipe for a financial gap that taxpayers and ratepayers will always be forced to fill. Even in the very early stages of the KUB’s plan, it is clear that its proposed GON will face the same fate.

 

The Knoxville Utility Board’s own business plan projects that its fiber division will rack up $123 million in losses over the first 10 years alone, which is why the Board is planning to subsidize it with its electric operation. This will leave all ratepayers – including those that do not subscribe to the GON – at risk for future rate increases.

 

Adding insult to injury, a consumer survey conducted by the Board finds that there is almost no legitimate demand for its proposed GON. A May 2021 report by Gillan Associates, An Analysis of the Fiber-to-the-Home Broadband Business Plan of the Knoxville Utility Board, summarizes key findings of the survey:

 

“There is no evidence of widespread dissatisfaction with existing providers. On a scale of 1 to 10, only 11% of Comcast subscribers and 8% of AT&T customers rated the service as a four or less… Even if unsure of their speeds, a majority think their service is fast enough…Only 1% of subscribers choose 1 Gbps service, even though it is broadly available.”

 

One of the arguments for this largely duplicative network is that it would allegedly expand broadband access into unserved communities. While expanding broadband access to those who do not have it is a laudable goal, the private sector, which has a track record of success, is already working on it.

 

Comcast, for example, has proposed to expand gigabit availability to every single unserved home and business in KUB’s footprint in Knox, Grainger, and Union County. Comcast would build and operate the network as well as provide most of the funding and take on the risk. This approach would make more efficient use of tax dollars and take ratepayers off the hook for future increases.

 

The private sector has invested $1.7 trillion over the years into the reliable networks we have today and is eager to invest more. Government simply needs to get out of the way. Wasting taxpayer dollars on a redundant network is useless and will only lead to more problems.

Photo Credit: TaxCredits.net


Republican Budget Puts New Hampshire On The Path To Becoming A True No Income Tax State

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Posted by Margaret Mire on Thursday, June 24th, 2021, 5:32 PM PERMALINK

Republicans just approved a budget that is a huge win for all New Hampshire taxpayers. It will make New Hampshire a true no income tax state, provide much-needed tax relief for businesses and consumers, and expand access to quality education. 

“Governor Sununu, Speaker Packard, and Senate President Morse won a great victory today for all New Hampshire taxpayers,” said Grover Norquist, president of Americans for Tax Reform. “The tax on interest and dividends is now to be phased out in five years. This means the personal income tax is to be finally and completely abolished. Gone. Finished. Completely dead. The meals and rooms tax is reduced to make New Hampshire more competitive with Maine and Vermont.”

The Republican budget will cut taxes for retirees who live off investments while also making New Hampshire an even more attractive place to live, invest, and do business by phasing out the Interest & Dividend tax (I&D tax) over five years. 

New Hampshire appears on the list of no income tax states because it does not tax wage income, but with an asterisk by its name due to the 5% tax it imposes on income earned from interest & dividends. While New Hampshire has been able to remain a competitive state thanks to its overall low tax burden, a growing movement of states are working to put their income taxes on the path to zero. Over time, as more states are added to the ‘no income tax’ list, the more the asterisk by New Hampshire’s name will become an issue.

Fortunately, the Republican budget addresses this problem by phasing out the I&D tax over five years. Once fully implemented, New Hampshire will finally be able to say that it is truly a no income tax state, ensuring that it remains competitive over the long term. Even when there are more no income tax states.

The Republican budget also reduces the Business Profits Tax (BPT) and the Business Enterprise Tax (BET), allowing small business across the state to invest more in new jobs and higher wages, and reduces the Meals and Rooms Tax, which will be particularly beneficial to New Hampshire’s tourism industry.

In addition to providing much-needed tax relief, the Republican budget expands access to quality education by establishing Education Freedom Accounts. This will give qualifying families the option use some of the tax dollars that would have been spent educating their children in a public school on private or parochial school tuition and fees instead. These families would also have the option to use that money to cover the costs associated with homeschooling.

Thanks to Governor Chris Sununu, Senate President Chuck Morse, House Speaker Sherman Packard, and Republicans in the legislature, every resident of the Granite State is a winner under this budget.

Education will improve, taxpayers will be able to keep more of their hard-earned money, and the Granite State will be an even more attractive place to open or expand a business and raise a family.

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Republicans Deliver Historic Income Tax Cut for All Arizonans

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Posted by Margaret Mire on Thursday, June 24th, 2021, 4:29 PM PERMALINK

Republicans just approved a historic budget bill that will provide an income tax cut to all Arizonans. Once fully implemented, this pro-growth tax package will reform the Grand Canyon State’s income tax to a flat rate of 2.5% and leave an additional $1.9 billion a year in the pockets of individual taxpayers, families, and small businesses.

“Today Arizona passed a historic and game changing budget that reduces taxes for all taxpayers and moves Arizona to a flat tax on the road to phasing out the entire state income tax,” said Grover Norquist, president of Americans for Tax Reform. “Already there are eight states with no state income tax. Governor Doug Ducey, bill sponsors Senator J.D. Mesnard and Majority Leader Ben Toma, Senate President Pro Tempore Vince Leach, House Appropriations Chair Regina Cobb, House Ways & Means Chair Shawnna Bolick, and many others worked together to create a brighter future for Arizona.”

People and jobs continue to pour out of high-tax states and into states that impose low- and no-income taxes. Arizona’s status quo – with one of the highest income tax rates in not only its region, but the entire country – has it on the wrong side of this equation.

Currently, Arizona has four income tax brackets ranging from 2.59% to 4.5%, and an effective fifth bracket with a rate of 8% a due Proposition 208’s 3.5% surcharge on certain income. Rather than sitting back and allowing Arizona to get crushed under this high top rate – the part of the income tax that is most often used to make decisions about investment – Republicans worked tirelessly this year to make Arizona competitive.

Under the Republican tax package, Arizona’s income tax will be streamlined to two brackets: 2.55% and 2.98%. When state revenue collections hit certain triggers, those two rates will be streamlined to a flat rate of 2.5%, lower than its current bottom rate of 2.59%.

Contrary to some claims, this is not a “tax cut for the rich.” The Republican tax package provides a tax cut and a rate cut for every single income taxpayer.

Building on this great news, the Republican tax package also includes an aggregate cap of 4.5% to mitigate some of the harm inflicted from Proposition 208. Thanks to this cap, Arizona small businesses will be shielded from a 77% tax increase and Arizona’s top rate will be regionally and nationally competitive.

The Republican tax package, which uses revenue triggers as opposed to other tax increases to reduce income tax rates, is both an inspiration and a model for the growing movement of states looking to phase out their income taxes.

Thanks to leadership of Gov. Ducey, bill sponsors Sen. Mesnard and Rep. Toma, Sen. Leach, Rep. Cobb, and Rep. Bolick, every single Arizonan is a winner under this plan.

Individual taxpayers and families will be able to keep more of their hard-earned money. Small businesses will be able to invest more in new jobs and higher wages. And Arizona will be an attractive place to invest and do businesses, bringing new jobs and opportunities to current residents of the Grand Canyon State.

The bill is now headed to Gov. Doug Ducey, who is eager to sign it into law.

Photo Credit: Wars

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Iowa Republicans Deliver Much-Needed Tax Relief

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Posted by Margaret Mire on Friday, May 21st, 2021, 5:11 PM PERMALINK

Gov. Kim Reynolds and Republican legislators are delivering $1 billion in tax relief to Iowans over the next eight years.

Senate File 619, managed by Senator Dan Dawson and Representative Dustin D. Hite, will make a number of pro-growth reforms to Iowa’s tax code that will allow individual taxpayers, families, and small businesses across the Hawkeye State to keep more of their heard-earned money.

One of the biggest victories in SF 619 is that it will fully phase out the state inheritance tax by 2025. Right now, Iowa has the unwelcome distinction of being one of just six states that still impose an inheritance or death tax. Because of this, non-lineal descendants – including siblings, nieces, nephews, domestic partners, and business partners – have faced a tax of up to 15 percent when they inherit assets that are valued at more than $25,000. 

“In Iowa, this often means a niece or nephew who inherits a share of the family farm from an uncle who never married will be faced with finding hundreds of thousands of dollars to hold onto land that’s been in their family for generations,” explained Iowans for Tax Relief. “Iowa’s inheritance tax hits entrepreneurs, too. If unrelated partners build a business together and one of them dies, the deceased partner’s half of the business would be subject to the inheritance tax if they choose to leave their portion to their business partner.”

Thanks to SF 619, Iowa’s death tax will not be around much longer. “Death taxes are always a second or third tax on the same income and savings,” explained Grover Norquist, president of Americans for Tax Reform. “The argument for death taxes is the politics of envy. The good news is that 70% of Americans have year after year consistently supported abolishing the death tax. Killing the death tax is good economics, good politics and helps end class warfare nonsense.” 

Another benefit of SF 619 is that it guarantees much-needed income tax relief will be delivered in 2023. Back in 2018, Iowa passed a tax reform bill that, once fully implemented, will deliver the largest tax cut in Iowa history. The catch with the 2018 tax reform package is that it made a lot of those important reforms contingent upon stringent triggers being met.

“The 2018 tax reform law designed two stringent revenue triggers for income tax rates to be reduced in 2023,” explained John Hendrickson, Policy Director for TEF Iowa. “The first, state revenues were to surpass $8.3 billion, and the second required revenue growth of at least four percent during that fiscal year. Eliminating both triggers removes an unnecessary impediment to rate reduction.”

SF 619 removes the unnecessary triggers from the 2018 tax reform law, guaranteeing tax relief will be delivered on time. Among other changes, in 2023, Iowa’s top income tax rate of 8.53 percent – the part of the income tax that is most often used to make decisions about investment – will be reduced to 6.5 percent. This will be a huge win for all Iowans.

Under the status quo, Iowa’s income tax is not competitive. Nine states – including Iowa’s neighbor South Dakota – do not tax wage income and thirty-three more states – including neighbors Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, and Wisconsin – have top marginal individual income tax rates that are lower than Iowa’s. The lower rate will make Iowa more attractive to investment, and will allow individual taxpayers, families, and small businesses, which overwhelming pay income taxes on the personal side of the code, to invest more in jobs and wages. 

While this is a great first step, Iowa should not get complacent. As people and jobs continue to move out of high tax states and into states that do not impose income taxes, more states are looking to put their income taxes on the path to zero. Iowa has a long way to go if it really wants to attract investment, jobs, and opportunities.

 

Photo Credit: Danksergeant15

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AZ Republicans Want to Return Surplus Revenue to Taxpayers In the Form of Pro-Growth Income Tax Relief

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Posted by Margaret Mire on Friday, April 16th, 2021, 2:11 PM PERMALINK

Arizona Republicans are working on a tax plan that would reduce and maybe even phase out the state income tax. This would be a huge win for all Arizonans.

Arizona is experiencing a $3.9 billion surplus for FY 2022, $1.2 billion of which is projected to be ongoing. Rather than using that money to grow government, Gov. Doug Ducey, Sen. J.D. Mesnard, President Pro Tem. Vince Leach, Majority Leader Ben Toma, and many others want to give it back to taxpayers in the form of pro-growth income tax relief. 

“Arizona’s leaders understand that surplus revenue belongs to Arizona taxpayers. It is not a slush fund for politicians,” explained Grover Norquist, president of Americans for Tax Reform. “Surplus dollars belong to the hardworking taxpayers. Gov. Ducey, Sen. Mesnard, Sen. Leach, Rep. Toma, and many others are doing the smartest thing that can be done in this situation – returning the money back to Arizonans in a manner that also makes the state tax climate more competitive and conducive to growth. Letting taxpayers keep more of their own money and setting up the state for economic success is a huge victory for everyone.”  

Arizona’s current income tax is not competitive. Its top rate of 8% is one of the highest in its region and the entire country. Making matters worse for Arizona, as people and jobs continue to move out of high tax states and into states that do not impose income taxes, more and more states are looking to put their income taxes on the path to zero. This growing movement will make Arizona even less competitive in the coming years.

Fortunately, the Republican tax plan – particularly if it includes a full phase out of the income tax – would turn things around for Arizona, making it a national model for other states to copy. As currently written, the plan would:

·         Streamline Arizona’s current 4-bracket income tax (5 brackets when considering the Prop 208 “surcharge” of 3.5% that will be imposed on certain income, giving Arizona a top rate of 8%) into a flat tax of 2.5%, lower than Arizona’s current bottom rate of 2.59% (technically it would have 2 brackets with the Prop 208 “surcharge,” but the plan includes an aggregate cap to ensure the top rate is not higher than 4.5%).

·         Couple the standard deduction to inflation.

·         Quadruple the child tax credit.

*There is also a serious effort to include a full phase out of the income tax. This would be accomplished through the use of revenue triggers, a responsible way for states to provide tax relief without the need to cut spending or raise other taxes, and without the risk getting ahead of their ski tips. The rate would only be reduced when excess revenue is available to “pay for” it.

The Republican tax plan would be a huge win for all Arizonans. Reducing and eliminating the income tax would attract businesses and investment to the state, bringing new jobs and opportunities for current Arizona residents. It would allow small businesses, which overwhelming pay income taxes on the personal side of the code, to invest more in higher wages. And it would allow individual taxpayers and families to keep more of their hard-earned money.

Stay tuned for more details.

 

Photo Credit: Madden

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Norquist in the Union Leader: Eliminate New Hampshire’s I&D Tax

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Posted by Margaret Mire on Friday, February 12th, 2021, 2:57 PM PERMALINK

In an OpEd in the Union Leader, Grover Norquist, president of Americans for Tax Reform, applauded Gov. Chris Sununu and Republicans in the House and Senate for their commitment to making New Hampshire a true no income tax state.

New Hampshire often appears on the list of nine states that do not impose income taxes, but with an asterisk by its name due to the 5% tax it imposes on income earned from interest and dividends. In order to be considered a true no income tax state, New Hampshire must eliminate that I&D tax.

“While New Hampshire has remained a competitive state thanks to its overall low tax burden — it is one of nine states that do not tax wage income, one of five states without a statewide sales tax, and one of four states that also ban the collection of local sales taxes — it should not get complacent,” cautioned Norquist.

As people and jobs continue to move into no income tax states, more and more states are exploring ways to eliminate their income taxes. “This movement will only grow, and as more states begin eliminating their income taxes and joining the list of true no income tax states, the more the asterisk by New Hampshire’s name will become a problem,” explained Norquist.

Eliminating the I&D tax would be a huge win for New Hampshire. In addition to allowing New Hampshire to finally be considered a true no income tax state, eliminating the I&D tax would end a form of double taxation and provide much-needed tax relief to retirees living off of investments.

“Now is the time for New Hampshire to become a true no income tax state,” wrote Norquist. “Doing so would send a strong reminder to all about the Granite State’s longstanding commitment to low taxes, and ensure that New Hampshire remains competitive over the long term. Even as more states eliminate their income taxes.”

To read the full OpEd, click here.

Photo Credit: U.S. Department of Agriculture


AR Lt. Gov. Tim Griffin Wants to Phase Out the State Income Tax

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Posted by Margaret Mire on Thursday, January 28th, 2021, 2:53 PM PERMALINK

Arkansas’ top individual income tax rate recently fell from 6.6 percent to 5.9 percent.  While that is great progress, Arkansas still has a long way to go if it wants to be competitive.

Eight states – including Arkansas’ neighbors Tennessee and Texas – do not tax individual income of any kind. New Hampshire does not tax wage income, and is likely to become a true no income tax state very soon. Twenty-one more states – including neighbors Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, and Oklahoma – have top rates that are lower than Arkansas’.

As more and more people and jobs move to no income tax states, more and more states are looking to phase out their income taxes.

“Now more than ever, states are competing--for jobs, new movers, skilled workers, and quality of life,” explained Lt. Gov. Tim Griffin in the Arkansas Democrat Gazette. “Arkansas needs bold ideas if we are to make our state the best possible place to live, work, and raise a family. That's why I'm calling for a complete phase-out of Arkansas' income tax, not immediately, but in the coming years. And we need to do it without raising other taxes in exchange.”

Lt. Gov. Griffin would like to eliminate the state income tax without raising other taxes in order to provide actual tax relief.

“Why would I give a taxpayer $1,000 in income tax savings and pay for it by charging them $1,000,” wrote Lt. Gov. Griffin. “That would be pointless. The goal is not simply to lower the income tax but lower the overall tax burden--the total amount of money the government takes. And raising a tax to cut a tax assumes that all the money state government spends is spent wisely with no room for improvement. We all know that's not true.”

To accomplish this goal of phasing out the income tax and providing tax relief, Lt. Gov. Griffin is calling for efficient spending and the use of revenue triggers – a responsible way for states to provide tax relief without getting ahead of their skis.

“Tax triggers are an important tool that other states, such as North Carolina, have used to reduce taxes, and they can be helpful here,” explained Lt. Gov. Griffin. “A tax reduction trigger is a provision of law that automatically reduces a tax rate when government revenue exceeds a set amount. This ensures that as our economy grows, the benefits of that growth are returned to the taxpayers.” 

Phasing out the state income tax would be a huge win for all Arkansans. It would allow individuals and families to keep more of their hard-earned money. It would allow small businesses, which file their taxes under the individual code, to invest more money in jobs and higher wages. And it would attract businesses looking to expand and investors looking for growing economies, bringing new jobs and opportunities to Arkansas.

To read Lt. Gov. Griffin's full OpEd, click here. "Phase out state income tax" by Lt. Governor Tim Griffin

 

Photo Credit: Nicolas Henderson

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Tax Relief A Top Priority for Governor Ducey

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Posted by Margaret Mire on Tuesday, January 12th, 2021, 4:06 PM PERMALINK

Governor Doug Ducey is committed to delivering tax relief to the hardworking people of Arizona this year.

In his State of the State address, Gov. Ducey told Arizonans that he wants to use the 2021 legislative session to build on the pro-taxpayer record that he and the republican-controlled legislature have accomplished over the past few years. Gov. Ducey explained

“Every year I’ve been governor, we’ve improved income taxes in the taxpayer’s favor. We’ve simplified the code, lowered all rates, protected them against inflation, and eliminated an entire tax bracket. In all of this, we’ve proven that our government can fulfill every obligation, and answer the unexpected needs of a growing state, without raising taxes.

My goal has been to make Arizona the best place in America to live, work, and do business – by letting Arizonans keep more of their hard-earned money. And having come this far, as other states chase away opportunity with their new taxes, why on earth would we ever want to follow their failed and depressing example?

So I propose, in this session, we work together to reform and lower taxes and preserve Arizona’s good name as a responsible, competitive state. On tax reform, let’s think big.” 

This is great news for taxpayers across the Grand Canyon State. In addition to allowing Arizonans to keep more of their hard-earned money, pro-growth tax reform that results in a tax cut would signal to all that Arizona is still committed low taxes and limited government, and welcome to investment.

“Governor Ducey has enacted a series of laws in Arizona that have been emulated in other states: Right to Try, universal license recognition, and securing Arizonans the freedom to rent out their homes on Airbnb and HomeAway,” said Grover Norquist, president of Americans for Tax Reform. “It is exciting to hear that Arizona will now begin to reduce its state income tax to become the most competitive state in the country. The 40 other states with personal income taxes will be watching.”

Income taxes are consistently cited by CEOs and business owners as a key determinant of business location: the lower the rate, the more attractive the state. As more and more people and jobs continue to move into the 9 states that do not tax wage income, more and more states are looking to reduce and phase out their income taxes.

Tax reform that results in a net tax cut would be a great way for Arizona to remain a competitive state.

Photo Credit: Gage Skidmore

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Taxpayer Win in Utah: Voters Chip Away at Income Tax Earmark – Amendment G

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Posted by Margaret Mire on Thursday, November 12th, 2020, 2:08 PM PERMALINK

Utah voters approved Amendment G, which appeared on the general election ballot. This taxpayer win is a great first step towards ending an antiquated approach to managing the state budget.

Since Utah has had an income tax in place, 100% of income tax revenue has been earmarked for ‘education.’ This bizarre arrangement, which is almost exclusive to Utah (Alabama has a similar earmark), has resulted in Utah state government costing more than it should and would otherwise be the case.

Despite the fact that Utah has experienced significant surpluses in income tax revenue – roughly $1 billion in 2019 alone – not a single dollar could be used to cover other parts of the budget. As a result, other taxes have remained higher than “necessary” since income tax revenue could not go towards any other government programs.

This arrangement has also made it incredibly difficult to deliver pro-growth tax reform that reduces, or ideally phases out, the state income tax. “This [earmarking all income tax revenue for education] means the most powerful lobby in Utah – the teacher’s union – is an opponent of all pro-growth reductions in the state income tax burden,” explained Grover Norquist in an OpEd in UtahPolicy.com.

Amendment G, which won about 54% of the vote, starts to chip away at this earmark on income tax revenue. Thanks to Amendment G, income tax revenue can also be used to fund programs for children and the disabled. Not just education.

This reform, which will offer greater flexibility in the budgeting process, will allow hard earned taxpayer dollars to be used more efficiently and reduce the threat of future tax increases. It may even facilitate lower tax rates.

Photo Credit: Curtis Fry


Arizona Slated for Massive Income Tax Hike -- Prop 208

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Posted by Margaret Mire on Friday, November 6th, 2020, 2:46 PM PERMALINK

Arizona voters have unfortunately approved Proposition 208, a measure that was heavily funded by out of state interests and will result in the hardworking taxpayers across the Grand Canyon State facing a permanent $1 billion income tax hike. Legal challenges against Prop. 208 are likely to ensue. 

Prop. 208 will impose a new 3.5% “surcharge” on single filers who earn more than $250,000 a year and married couples who earn more than $500,000. This amounts to a whopping 77.7% tax increase, giving Arizona the unwelcome distinction of being home to one of the highest income rates in the country. 

“Backers of Prop. 208 have been claiming this massive increase in Arizona’s top marginal individual income tax rate would only impact ‘the rich.’ But that is not true,” wrote Grover Norquist, president of Americans for Tax Reform, in an OpEd that warned of the serious negative consequences of this measure. “Prop. 208 proponents ‘forget’ to mention that small business owners also pay individual income taxes. In reality, around 50% of those whose tax rates would be targeted are small businesses, many of whom have already been struggling from weeks of forced shutdowns to slow the spread of the coronavirus.”

Adding insult to injury, Prop. 208 is also going to jeopardize future jobs and opportunities for Arizonans. “[I]t has been well documented that income tax rates are a key determinant of business location and investment,” wrote Norquist. Prior to Prop. 208, Arizona’s top marginal individual income tax rate of 4.5% was fairly competitive. Once Prop. 208 takes effect, Arizona’s new rate of 8% will rank 10th highest in the country and 2nd highest in the region. “Why would anyone want to invest in Arizona when there are so many other states that would allow them to keep more of their hard-earned money,” said Norquist.

Prop. 208, the so-called “InvestInEd” measure, will devastate Arizona’s economy, while doing nothing to actually improve education. “It would not expand parental choice. It would not call for higher standards. It is basically a slush fund for bureaucrats,” explained Norquist. “Giving all parents and students – regardless of income or address – the ability to choose the school that works best for them is the best way to improve education and education outcomes.”

A glimmer of hope for Arizona taxpayers is that legal challenges are likely to be filed against Prop. 208. There is still a chance that this massive tax increase – the largest in Arizona history – may not take effect.

Photo Credit: Neepster


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